Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein A (PAPP-A)
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is a 200 kDa metalloproteinase specific for insulin-like growth factor 4 (IGF-4) that forms a homodomer of 400 kDa in active form. In the serum of pregnant women it exists as a heterotetramer with pro-eosinophil basic protein (proEBP; 2:2 ratio of PAPP-A to proEBP) with the proEBP maintaining the metalloproteinase in an inactive form1-2. More recently, PAPP-A has been shown to be a promising marker for unstable atherosclerotic plaques with potential as a prognostic indicator for elevated risk in patients with cardiovascular disease3-5. With the recent development of highly specific antibodies for the dimeric form of PAPP-A, it has been demonstrated that it is the dimeric form of PAPP-A that becomes elevated in the serum of patients with cardiovascular disease, not the form complexed with proEBP6,7.
AvantGenhas developed compatible high affinity human monoclonal diagnostic antibodies that specifically identify the PAPP-A subunit relevant to cardiovascular disease for diagnostic purposes and show no cross-reactivity to either proEBP or related metalloproteinases such as PAPP-A2 or MMP-9.
1. Lawrence, JB.,et al., The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent IGF binding protein-4 protease secreted by human fibroblasts is pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci U. S. A. 1999; 96, 3149–3153.
2. Oxvig, C., et al., Circulating human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is disulfide-bridged to the proform of eosinophil major basic protein. J. Biol. Chem. 1993; 268,12243–12246.
3. Bayes-Genis A., et al., Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A as a marker of acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345(14):1022-9.
4. Iversen, KK., et al., CLARICOR Trial Group.Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A as a marker for myocardial infarction and death in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a prognostic study within the CLARICOR Trial. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214(1):203-8.
5. Qin QP.,et al., Molecular distinction of circulating pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in myocardial infarction and pregnancy. Clin Chem. 2005; 51(1):75-83.
6. Kavsak, PA, et al., PAPP-A as a marker of increased long-term risk in patients with chest pain. ClinBiochem. 2009; 42(10-11):1012-8.
7. Lund, J., et al., Free vs total pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) as a predictor of 1-year outcome in patients presenting with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Clin Chem. 2010; 56(7):1158-65.
|Catalog No||Antigen||Clone||Application||Data Sheet|
|DA-2009||PAPP-A||A1||ELISA||Download PDF||Request Quote|
|DA-2010||PAPP-A||C1||ELISA||Download PDF||Request Quote|